Degradation of soil
- Soil becomes hard because of use of farm machinery.
- Nutrient holding capacity decreases.
- Micro nutrient deficiency
- pH imbalance where in soil become acidic.
- Death of some microorganism causing imbalance
- Accelerated elimination of humus.
Disappearance of local varieties
Local varieties are the genetic base for improving seeds and are a very important resource for the future. Local varieties are disappearing with alarming rate because of use of modern high yielding varieties and hybrid. Examples: now old varieties of rice, wheat, and maize are not available in the countryside. Some of them were good in taste and other qualities.
Pollution of soil, water, air and food products
Use of pesticides, fertilizers pollute soil, water, air and food products. It has been found that water is polluted with high nitrate (No3-). Residual effect of many insecticides has been found on food.
Outbreak of pests
Use of pesticides not only kills the target pest but also kills useful and non-targeted pest. This creates imbalance in nature. Besides that, pests become resistant to pesticides. Thus, outbreak of pests are quite common with chemical agriculture.
Social and economic problem
a) Increase in the cost of production due to high-cost inputs
b) Erected a gap between rich and poor.
c) Creating dependency for the need of know-how and materials, eg. Saving seed is not possible by the use of hybrid seed.
d) Loosing the traditional farming system and knowledge.