1) Time of sowing
The crop is subjected to different weather conditions when sown at different periods. The day length (for photosensitive varieties) and temperature are most important factor that influences the optimum plant population.
In rainfed condition, the number of plant population should be less because if the plant population is high the residual moisture of soil will be depleted due to maximum transpiration and creates the moisture stress condition in last phase of crop. Under adequate irrigation or under evenly distributed rainfall condition, higher plant population is recommended.
3) Fertilizer application
Dense plant stand is necessary to fully utilize higher level of nutrients in the soil to achieve potential yields. Nutrient uptake increases with increase in plant population. Higher plant population under
low fertility condition leads to develop the nutrient deficiency.
4) Planting pattern
Planting pattern influences the crop yield through influence on light interception, rooting pattern and
moisture extraction pattern