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Learn Principles of Agronomy — B.SC agriculture
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1) The nature of manure and fertilizers:

  • Bulky organic manures, di-calcium and tri-calcium phosphates and slow release nitrogenous
  • fertilizers become slowly available to the plants.
  • Due to such reason these manure and fertilizers should be applied before sowing or at the time of sowing or planting.
  • Highly mobile fertilizers i.e. nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied in splits with lower doses or as foliar spray, whereas slightly mobile or immobile fertilizers i.e. phosphorus and potash should be applied in basal dose.
  • Green manuring should be done at least a week before sowing crops so that they decompose well before seeding.

2) The soil types and soil water balance:

  • The types of soil play an important role in nutrient use and nutrient use efficiency.
  • In light soils the loss of nutrients through leaching is greater as compared to heavy soils.
  • Due to such reason bulky organic manures should be applied before 1-2 weeks of sowing or planting and concentrated manures and rapidly soluble fertilizers should be applied as basal and split dose (top dressing).

3) The nature of the crop and cropping system:

  • The N uptake is slow at the initial stage of the crop and uptake is gradually increases to a maximum and then declines to a minimum or nil at maturity stage.
  • It is better to apply N fertilizer in two or more splits of the total quantity as per the duration and requirement of the crop, soil type and type of fertilizer.
  • In short duration crops like leafy vegetables, seedlings in the nursery, the entire dose of N may be applied as basal dressing to the soil or foliar spray. But in long duration crops like sugarcane split application (2-3 installments) of manure and fertilizer is adopted.
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