Course Content
Learn Principles of Agronomy — B.SC agriculture
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1) Breeder or nucleus seed:

  • Directly controlled by the originating or sponsoring plant breeding programme.
  • Produced as a result of hybridization selection and mutation.
  • Possess all the required genetic characters and produced directly under the supervision of the plant breeder.
  • Source for the production of foundation seed.
  • Available in small quantity.
  • Are of a high genetic value and being very little quantity and are very costly.
  • Breeder seed has golden tag.

2) Foundation seed:

  • Progeny of breeder seed and second grade seed in order of its genetic purity.
  • Production of foundation seed is done generally by government farm or by certain organizations (NARC, Cooperatives, National Seed Company, NGOs).
  • Relatively less pure compared to the breeder seed.
  • Has white tag and available in limited quantity.

3) Certified seed (1st generation):

  • Progeny of foundation seed.
  • Its production is done in such a way that specific genetic identity and purity is maintained according to standards specified for the crop being certified.
  • This seed is also produced in government farm or by certain organizations.
  • During the period of seed production, the seed inspectors inspect the field and the seed thus produced is processed, bagged and tagged in the presence of the seed technicians of the seed-certifying agency.
  • After proper leveling the seed is sold to the leader farmers or certain organizations.
  • It has tag with blue border.


4) Certified seed (2nd generation):

  • Progeny of certified seed 1st generation.
  • It is produced seed producing farmer’s field with the supervision of seed certifying agencies.
  • It is relatively less pure compared to previous three seed categories.
  • It has tag with green border.
  • It is source seed for improved seed production.
  • It is available in sufficient quantity.

5) Improved seed:

  • Progeny of certified seed 2nd generation.
  • Produced in the farmer’s field with supervision of certifying agencies.
  • It is available in sufficient quantity.
  • It has yellow tag and is used for commercial cultivation of crop.
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