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Terminology Related to Lawn, Garden and Landscape Design
Learn Ornamental Horticulture with Braimy – B.SC agriculture
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Accent plant: a plant that attracts attention by its distinctive color, shape, size or texture in contrast to plants used with it. Plants that have particularly fine shape or can be mold to desired forms or those with very attractive flowers and/or foliage are used as accents.


Accent: to call attention to a particular location in a landscape or floral design. This may be plant material or a nonliving object. A fountain or statuary may also serve the purpose.


Actinomorphic flower: Regular flower i.e. flowers’ petals, sepals, stamens etc are equal and more of less equidistant so that the flower may be cut into two equal halves through any plane.


Aesthetic: appearing to be pleasant appreciative of beauty.


Albino plant: Plants having no green tissue.


Analogous: a color scheme that utilizes any three adjacent hues from the color wheel.


Annuals: Are the annual plants that live for one year or less i.e. the plant makes its vegetative growth, flowers and produces seed within one year from the sowing date then plants die.


Arch and pergola: arch is a semicircular or rectangular structure at the entrance of a garden or a building compound. Arches are usually less than a meter wide at the top and are so constructed as to grow beautiful medium climbers on it. Pergola is an extension of arch over a considerable length. A pergola may be used to cover a path leading from one part of the garden to another or along some grassy path or glade. It is necessary to plant the climbers at appropriate distances in order to get a through coverage of the pergola. Sitting benches may be provided in side the pergolas if the width offer. As one walks down a pergola the picture presented takes the form of a very narrow concentrated vista and unless it terminates in something of interest, the eye is unsatisfied. Hence, it must lead up to a figure, statue, garden ornament or an interesting feature of a garden.


Asymmetrical: objects of unequal size or visual weight are places on opposite sides of vertical axis, as in an asymmetrical landscape plan.


Avenue: A wide road beautified with ornamental trees along their sides.

Balance: a design principle that presents an equal visual weight of elements to a viewer.


Bedding plant: Any herbaceous plant used in home landscaping including flowers, herbs, ground covers, perennials etc.


Bedding plants: herbaceous plants normally grown in outdoor beds to provide colorful blooms or foliage in a landscape.


Border: plants located at the perimeters of al landscape to provide a screen.


Boulevard: A strip of land between two wide roads protected with low fence and beautified with ornamental plants.


Boutonniere: a single flower or small assemblage of flowers worn by a man.


Bract: A modified leaf sometimes brightly coloured, usually associated with a flower or a cluster of flowers eg. Bougainvillea


Bulblets: Miniature bulbs produced around the base of the mother bulb due to development of meristem in the axil of scale leaves.


Bulbous plants: Members of a group having bulbs, corms, tubers, tuberous roots and rhizomes and are grown commercially as cut flowers and flowering pot plants eg narcissus, daffodil, tulip etc.


Cacti: Cacti are a group of plants with peculiar shape and size and mostly adapted for desert life.


Catkin: An inflorescence consisting of a hanging spike of much reduced flowers as seen in birch, acalypha, mulberry etc.


Caudex: The unbranched, erect, cylindrical and stout stem, marked with scars of fallen leaves, as in palms.


Center of interest: a term synonymous with accent or emphasis in design. Any objects that attract attention or creates a focal point in a design composition.


Charcoal: A porous solid residue closer to pure carbon resulting from the incomplete combustion of wood.


Climber: An annual or perennial herb or shrub with special structures to climb over a support.


Color wheel: a diagram illustrating the various primary, secondary and tertiary colors with their respective tints and shades as they are applied to design.


Complementary colors: any two colors located opposite each other on the color when used together in a design.


Conditioning: A cooling treatment of cut flowers before shipment to restore the turgidity of lowers by saturating them with water.


Cut flowers: flowers grown for the purpose of cutting for display in a container or for other uses.

De-shooting: Removal of newly formed shoots to prevent them from becoming branches and also called as summer pruning.


Double flower: Flowers with more than the usual number of petals and/or with style and stamens modified to petals.


Double potting: a method of enhancing the display of potted plants by placing the potted plant in a more decorative pot.


Emphasis: a design principle. Creation of a visual accent in a design.


Enframent: the framing of a landscape or building with plants. Espalier: plants trained to grow flat against a wall.


Evergreen: Persistence of functional leaves throughout the year i.e. never without green foliage.


False gate: previous gate that is enclosed later. It may be real or seems just.


Fedge: cross between hedge and fence which is impassable.


Fern: A big group of pteredophytes abundantly grown in cool, shady and moist places both in the hills and in the plains.


Filler flowers: a flower used to complete an arrangement by filling in gaps to tie in the various aspects of the design.


Fledging nursery: nursery managed by unskilled persons.


Floral foam: a block of material with a high capacity for water absorption and retention that provides mechanical support for cut flowers in an arrangement.


Floret: Small individual flowers of a dense inflorescence as in flowers of Asteraceae family.


Focal point: the location within a design that attracts the greatest attention:


Foliage plant: any plant grown for its foliage characteristics.


Form flower: a flower with a unique shape that is used to provide a focal point in an arrangement.


Form: a design element: the tree-dimensional shape of the plant canopy.


Formal garden: a stylized garden in which arrangement of the materials emphasizes symmetry and geometry.


Foundation planting: a planting of trees, shrubs or ground covers in front of a building foundation.


Foundation planting: Planting of trees, shrubs etc around the base of the foundation of a building, also called base planting.


Frond: A leaf of fern or palm.

Garden: A plot or land devoted to the growing of flowers, shrubs, flowering and shade trees, creepers, herbs, other ornamental plants fruit trees and vegetables in certain manner.


Greenbelt: a stretch of land that is left construction-free by real estate developers in a residential area for functional purposes.


Ground cover: low growing and spreading plants that form mat-like growth over an area.


Hanging basket: a container suspended from a ceiling or wall. Pots of various size, shapes and makes, grown with ornamental plants are often hung from higher locations for beautification purpose. These are known a hanging basket. Containers including the plants and their media should be light in weight so that they can be moved from one place to other without great effort.


Harmony: an intangible design principle. The successful blending of a design so that all components become a part of the whole.


Heather (Heath): specific flower used in groups for mass effect in single place.


Hedges and edges: hedge and edge are to be used when the garden design demands such features. Hedges are established in agarde3n by the use of plant material like trees, shrubs and climbers. These are useful because they provide protection of an area, demarcated a sector, screen unwanted and ugly site, acts as windbreak and anti-pollutants and finally beautify the spot. To enhance the beauty of garden, attractive plants are used as hedges. They, however, require trimming and maintenance. Edging in the garden can be done by living and nonliving materials. Edgings separate different elements, which give a finished, look to the area they surround, and offer decorative accents. Edging performs functions, such as, setting off a lawn from an adjacent paved area or holding paving units in place. A garden edging may exist mainly for decoration, any they are also used to visually link elements in the landscape. Herbaceous plants or orderly form and low growing habit are suitable for edging. Non-living edges are mad e of brick, tiles, masonry blocks, wood, poured concrete or stone.


Heliophytes: Sun loving plant species which require intense light for their normal growth and development.


Herbarium: A collection and arrangements of plant specimens according to taxonomy.


Hip: It is referred to rose fruit which is also sometimes called hep.


Holding solution: A solution containing 1-2% sugar with or without other chemicals like germicides, commercially sold for increasing the vase life of cut flowers (vase solution).


Indoor gardening: Growing, arrangement and display of house plants for interior decoration of a room or house.


Informal garden: a garden in which the materials are located without emphasis on regularity and symmetry.


Jettis: in landscape design, the way to go up to the boat in pool.


Landscape gardening: Designing and laying out home gardens, public gardens, parks, roadside plantation, avenues etc. is called landscape gardening.


Lawn: Lawn is an open area with green grass of the garden. For e.g. Cynodon dactylon.


Leaf mould: A nitrogen rich material consisting of partially decayed leaves which improve soil structure and fertility.


Line flowers: a flower with a splice appearance.


Line: a design element: the one-dimensional effect produced by arranging three-dimensional objects in a certain fashion.


Mass flower: a flower that is usually round-shaped and is used most abundantly in an arrangement.


Maze garden: a formal landscape planting surrounded by hedges or other barrier plantings designed in the form of maze of labyrinth.


Moon garden: Garden developed in the tropical areas by using ethereal value of moon light to linger outdoor at night where yellow or white flowering plants which show up well at night are planted.


Moss: A dried bog materials from Sphagnum spp. or Funaria sp. usually used as rooting medium or to enrich the soil mixture.


Mower: A machine mainly used for trimming grasses in the lawn.


Ornamental garden: An area established with valuable and pleasurable plants adjacent to a house or other building.


Perlite: Gray white silicaceous material of volcanic origin, very light sterile and can hold 3-4 times of its weight of water.


Planting plan: a design process: a drawing specifying by means of symbols the types and names of plant species, the quantities, and their locations in a landscape.


Pot bound: the growing of roots over each other and around the bottom of the pot as a result of limited space.


Pre-cooling: An important post-harvest operation of vegetables which is accomplished by refrigeration or water immersion with a view to removing field heat, conserve weight and retard ripening and senescence of the harvested entity.


Public area: the part of the landscape in front of a house and viewable from the street. Rhythm: a design principle. The creation of visual movement in a design.


Rockery or rock garden: The garden developed on the rock or with particular rocks and other ornamental plants.


Saprophytes: Organism which obtains organic matter in solution from dead and decaying tissues of plants or animals.


Scale: the landscape design principle that creates proportionality among design elements.


Sciophytes: Shade loving plants which can be grown indoor environment because they require comparatively low light intensity for their normal growth and development.


Service area: the area of a home landscape designed for storage, garbage cans and other such uses.


Shelf-life: it refers to the span upto which the perishable commodities can be kept at consumable and marketable stage after harvest.


Shrub: Shrub may be defined as a perennial plant having many woody branches arising from the base of the plant.


Shrub: Smaller than tree and produce woody branches near the ground level forming a bushy growth without a clear trunk.


Site plan: a design process: a drawing of the locations of plants and inanimate objects in a landscape.


Solitary flowers: Flowers those borne singly.


Specimen plant: a showy ornamental plant grown solely for its unique beauty.


Step and ramp: stem are the path for foot walks where as ramp is road for wheeler along with steps.


Succulents: The juicy plants among the most specialized form and they are the expression of peculiar condition of soil and climate.


Symmetry: having the same elements or parts duplicated on each side of a vertical axis.


Terrarium: A closed type of glass container used to provide usual environment for the growth of plants.


Terrarium: a transparent enclosure (glass or plastic) that retains high humidity; used for displaying and growing plants indoors.


Topiary: Certain structure or figures made by training and pruning of the plant like Murraya sp


Topiary: clipping and shearing of shrubs, small trees and herbaceous perennials into all sorts of shapes in mimicry (impression) of peacocks, elephants and other animals and objects is known as topiary. Supporting structure of iron frame is given to maintain the shape. They are valued in formal garden. Plants, which have t hick green and small foliage all the year round and which produce profuse axillary branches quickly after pruning, are suitable for topiary work.


Topophysis: effect of the position of the propagule on the plant. That may be orthotropic: propagule taken upright shoots grow vertically or plagiotropic: propagule taken from lateral shoot grows horizontally.


Topple in gladiolus: Breaking of spikes as florets open in the vase which is closely correlated with calcium content of stalk tissues.


Training: Training means developing a desired shape of the tree with particular objectives by controlling the habit of growth.


Transition area: an area between the accent and corner plantings. Used to pull a design together into a single composition.


Trophophyte: A plant that is adapted to a climate characterized by a very dry season followed by a wet one.


Tunic: The papery or fibrous coats covering bulbs and corms.


Tunicated bulbs: type of bulb where the outer leaves are usually thin, membranous and dry, and completely in sheath the inner portion and the central axis of the bulb like a tunic as the bulb of Allium.


Turf: A piece of land with grass thickly grown over it.


Turfing: The process of planting grass to develop a lawn in which turves of grass, free from weeds are placed closely to each other in a blinded pattern of the prepared ground.


Twiner: A herb that does not possess special structures but climb over a support by twining themselves spirally e.g. Madhavi etc.


Unity: a design principle: the blending of all parts of a design into a pleasing composition. Created by the repetition of the same flowers, colors or textures throughout the design.


Vase life: the duration of time in which a cut flower retains its desirable qualities while on display in a vase.


Vista: it is a three-dimensional confided view of terminal building or dominant element of feature. That may be natural or man-made. Natural vistas are very common around the lofty mountains and snowy peaks. A typical man-made is in Taj-mahal. i. e. it is a view of main building from the entrance gate building.


Xeriscape gardening: landscape in which only xerophytes are included.


Xerophytes: Plants which are adopted to live in drought conditions

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