- Scientific name: Rosa spp
- Tropical, temperate and sub alpine climate.
- 2000 – 3600 m. altitude.
- Optimum temperature 15-20 0C.
- H.60%.is required during flowering.
- SA well – drained deep loamy soils, rich in organic matters.
- But it can be grown a variety of soils having medium salinity.
- Soil pH 5 to 7.0, water logged soil in not suitable.
- Propagation: Seeds, cutting, suckers, budding, Inarching.
- Preparation of land: 1-2 ploughings, 1- harrowing and leveling in needed.
- The rootstock of R. multiflora, Edourand rose are transplanted in July or August at sites where the budding as to be attempted.
- The bud rose plants is done during December – February.
- Cutting should be treated with IBA solution. The cuttings are inserted into the soil or sand from 3rd Nov to February.
- Preparation of land: 1-2 ploughing, 1 harrowing, and leveling is needed for good cultivation.
- Planting season:- September – November. For high hills-February – March.
- Spacing:- 75x60cm : Budded rose plant – 1.25m x 75cm ;climber – 2.25 x 75cm
- For Pits:- Size – 2 x 2 x2 m .5-10 kg of FYM/Compost . and 3gm of Aldrin to each pit at the time of planting.
- 20-25 tones / h.- FYM or Compost. 200 : 75 : 75 kg of NPK / ha / Year. Nitrogen is applied to each bush.
- Application of 50 ppm NAA and 1 percent micronutrient (Agromine) mixture is reported to produce maximun flowers.
- 2:1:2 parts of Urea. Dihydrogn ammonium phosphate and Potassium phosphate is also beneficial to rose crops a applied in 3 split doses.
- 1st split dose – After 1st pruning, 2nd split dose. Two years of age at about 1.5m height; 3rd SD – After 3-4 months of 2nd split dose.
- The ratio 2:4:3: of NPK mixture is prepared and the about 100gm of this mixture may be foliar spray.
- Spray 0.3% each Zinc sulphate, Magnesium and Manganese sulphate solution as foliar in November and February enhance the blossoming of rose
- Interculture: Atrazine or Simazine is applied as pre-emergence. Weeding and hoeing needs to be done thoroughly operation for obtaining good yield.
- The pruning operation should be done once a year during October- November
- Bordopaste or Blitox should be painted in stem after pruning.
- Irrigation: 10-12 irrigations/year. Generally irrigation should be done after pruning to flowering stage. In summer – 7days and in winter 10 -15 days intervals.
- Diseases: Rust, Black spot, Powdery mildew, Dieback- Spray 0.1% malathion or parathion or 5% Aldrin or 0.2% Bavistin paste also used .
- Insect Pests: Aphids, Thrips, Mites, Rose scales. Termites and Beetles.
- 2% Roger or Cerathion or Metasystox. Spray schedule of these insecticides.
- Economical yield of flower is obtain from 3rdyear onward & continue to give high yield up to 10-12 years.
- Pick up the flowers or cut the pedicles by sickle from the rose plant. Picking should be done early in the morning.
- Yield: 4000 to 6000kg of flowers/ha. It may go upto 8000-10000kg/h
- The principal constituents of the oil are Geraniol and citronellol.
- Other chemical compounds are nerol, stearopten, phenyl ethanol, farnesol, linalol, eugenol, carvone, rose oxide with many other trace constituents.
- More than 60 – 80 percent of rose flowers are used for production of Rose Water !
- Rose water is used as a house hold cosmetics and culinary articles especially in Persian cookery.
- The concrete, absolute and oil are employed extensively in soaps, cosmetics, toiletries and perfumes.
- Some flavouring uses, especially fruit products and tobacco.
- Rose Jam is prepared from rose petals by mixing sugars.
- Eye lotions, eye drops, syrups, tonic are prepared from rose.
- It is used in aromatherapy such as conjunctivitis, dry skin, palpitations, hay- fever, nausea, Leucorrhoea, uterine disorders, depression, impotence insomnia and frigidity.
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