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Learn introductory soil conservation and watershed management with Braimy- Agriculture
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  1. Riprap

Riprap - Geosyntec

A. Stone riprap without vegetation: Generally used in stream bank, water course.

B. Riprap with vegetation: roadside, gully beds and head.


  • Reinforce and armor the slope against erosion. It allows seepage to flow out between the stones.


  • Stones are not dislodged once the vegetation is established.
  • Good drainage through wall by the plants.


  • Regeneration of vegetation is obstructed by stones.
  • relatively expensive to carry out in large scale

  1. Palisade:

The live palisade just after construction. | Download Scientific Diagram

  • wall consisting of living uniform stakes of live material driven into the ground (one third of their length), close to each other to form a palisade.
  • Used as defensive structure


  • Reduce slope in gullies and tributaries,
  • encourage deposition of sediments especially in fine soils.

  1. Brush layering:


  • made of living cuttings planted in line, on terraces across the slope, following the contour, cover with soil with just the tips sticking out.
  • It is used for stabilization of shallow earth slumps and loose soil slopes and gullies.


  • It is simple and provides a very strong and low-cost barrier, especially on loose debris of slopes.


  • The construction of the layers gives rise to a considerable level of disturbance to the slope.
  • Brush layering should only be used on slopes consisting of loose material.

  1. Wattling:

Straw Wattles | Biodegradable Perimeter Erosion Control

  • Wattling, or rooted fences, is used over steep slopes in loose materials, where vegetation cannot naturally establish. (Phaledo, dabdabe, Kavro, Khirro)
  • Soil is filled in behind the fence. Generally done along the contour line


  • Fast and simple protection;
  • Rooted fences establishes a micro-site for other plants.


  • Large quantities of flexible branches are required.
  • Labour and material intensive, securing effect is small, easily damaged, thus not sufficient for persistent rock falls.
  • Applicable only to slope with limited volume of debris flow. It can be used up to about 40°.
  • Not suitable on excessively drained soils (the cuttings dry out and die).
  1. Fascines:

Fascines (a) in the field (courtesy of P. Belleudy) and (b) in the... |  Download Scientific Diagram

  • Structures consisting of bundles made with live plant material anchored to the ground using pegs, which in some cases can also be made from live plant material (cuttings).


  • After rooting and spouting develop into a strong line of vegetation that depleting soil-water through transpiration and interception;
  • dissipate the energy of downward moving water,
  • trap debris and provide a series of benches on which grasses and eventually
  • Increase infiltration.


  • Simple and low-cost erosion control measures, which is effective even after silting.
  • Very adaptable to the existing morphology,
  • requires little soil work,
  • suitable for steep rocky slopes where digging is difficult. The maximum slope is about 45°.


  • A large amount of straight and long plant material is needed.
  • Do not form a physical barrier immediately.
  • can only drain a limited amount of water, up to about 5 litres per second.

  1. Pole or Live stake planting

Live Stakes/Pole Plantings

  • Live staking involves the insertion and tamping of live, rootable vegetative cuttings into the ground.
  • If correctly prepared and placed, the live stake will root and grow.


  • A system of stakes creates a living root mat that stabilizes the soil by reinforcing and binding soil particles together and by extracting excess soil moisture.

  1. Jute netting

Jute Netting Roll - Erosion Control Mesh Matting – Sandbaggy

  • Done to protect the mulch from wind and water damage.
  • Reduces soil erosion and provides a good environment for vegetative growth.
  • Can be applied alone without mulch as an alternative to straw or wood mulches on flat sites for dust control and seed germination enhancement.

  1. Hedgerow planting

Establishment of Hedge row to control erosion on sloping lands in... |  Download Scientific Diagram

  • Linear design for natural resource conservation using woody plants or perennial grasses.
  • It improves water quality and provide wildlife habitat.
  • Contribute to sustainable mountain development through erosion control.
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