Course Content
Introduction to plant breeding
0/6
Domestication, plant introduction, and acclimatization
0/8
Modes of reproduction and pollination control
0/11
Qualitative and quantitative characters
0/2
Biometrical techniques in plant breeding
0/4
Selection in self-pollinated crops
0/10
Hybridization techniques and its consequences
0/7
Genetic composition of cross-pollinated populations
0/5
Selection in cross-pollinated crops
0/11
Heterosis and inbreeding depression
0/8
Mutation breeding
0/11
Polyploidy in plant breeding
0/9
Breeding methods in self-pollinated crops
0/21
Clonal selection
0/8
Release of new varieties
0/7
Quality seed
0/4
Breeding for pest resistance
0/7
Intellectual property right
0/4
Learn Introductory plant breeding with Braimy- B.Sc agriculture
• Let us consider a single gene with two alleles, A and a, in a random mating population.
• There would be three genotypes, AA, Aa and aa, for this gene in the population. Suppose the population has N individuals of which D individuals are AA, H individuals are Aa and R individuals are aa so that D +H + R = N.
• The total number of alleles at this locus in the population would be 2N since each individual has two alleles at a single locus.
• The total number of A alleles would be 2D+H because AA individuals have two A alleles each, while each Aa individual has only one A allele.
• The ration (2D+H)/2N is, therefore, the frequency of A allele in the population, and is represented by p.
• Similarly, the ratio (2R + H) / 2N is the frequency of allele a, and is written as q.

Therefore, p = (2D + H) / 2N or = (D + ½ H) / N and

q = (2R + H) / 2N or = (R + ½ H) / N

Therefore, p + q = 1

and p = 1 – q,

or q = 1 – p

• The value of p and q are known as gene frequencies. Gene frequency is the proportion of an allele, A or a, in a random mating population.
• The genotype frequency or zygotic frequency is the proportion of a genotype, AA, Aa or aa, in the population.
• Random mating or random union of the two types of gametes would produce the following genotypes in a ratio proportionate to the frequencies of the gametes that united to produce them.
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