A) Production of Autopolyploids:
c) Regeneration in vitro
d) Heat or cold treatment
e) Chromosome doubling in somatic cells
f) Using colchicine treatment
B) Effects of Autopolyplods:
a) Increased vigor and size.
b) larger and thicker leaves, stems
c) Larger flowers, fruits and seeds
d) Larger pollen grains, stomata
e) Lower growth rate
f) Variable sterility
g) Reduced fertility and fewer seeds.
C) Application of Autopolyploids
a) useful in the studies on effects of loss or gain of an entire chromosome or a chromosome arm on the phenotype of an individual.
b) useful in locating a linkage group and a gene to a particular chromosome. By using a secondary or tertiary trisomic, the gene may be located to one of the two arms of a chromosome, or even to a part of the chromosome arm. The most important application of aneuploids is in locating genes on particular chromosomes; this will be considered in some detail.
c) useful in identifying the chromosome involved in translocations.
d) useful in the production of substitution lines. Chromosome substitution may be desirable for studying the effects of individual chromosomes of a variety or for the transfer of the genes carried by specific chromosomes or a variety into another one
D) Limitations of Autopolyploid
a) larger size, water content and low dry matter.
b) High sterility
c) Genetic instability
d) Complex segregation pattern
e) Few or more undesirable patterns in new polyploids.