- Indirectly： by photosynthesis and transpiration.
- Directly： A little flux of light can control morphogenesis of the plant.
(2) Temperature—Three cardinal points:
- minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for growth”
- optimum temperature for growth is the temperature at which plant grows fastest but not strongest.
- Suboptimum temperature for growth is the temperature at which plant grows slower but strongest than at optimum temperature.
- “Dry for root, wet for bud”. Root depends on cell division and bud does cell elongation.
(4)O2: enough O2 favors growth. 10-15% soil O2——tilling
(5).Mineral nutrition: Grow worse upon deficiency or toxification
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