a) Species richness: Species richness is the total no. of species within a geographical area.
b) Species evenness: It is used to measure species diversity having relationship with one another.
c) Agro-biodiversity: Agricultural biodiversity is defined as “the variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms that are used directly or indirectly for food and agriculture, including crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries.
d) Biological Hierarchy: Biological hierarchy refers to the systemic organization of organisms into levels i.e from gene (lowest level) to biosphere (highest level).
e) Guild diversity: Refers to diversity where more than one species performs identical function.
f) Alpha diversity: Refers to diversity within each ecosystem.
g) Beta diversity: Refers to diversity between different ecosystem.
h) Gamma diversity: The sum of both alpha and beta diversity is called gamma diversity.
i) Microbial diversity: Microbial diversity is defined as the variability among living organisms and include diversity among the range of different kinds of unicellular organisms, bacteria, archaea, protists, and fungi.
j) Endemic diversity: Diversity in native or naturally confined area to a particular and usually a restricted area is called Endemic diversity.
k) Carrying capacity: The maximum levels of biomass and energy that any community or ecosystems supports or sustains is called its carrying capacity.
m) Germplasm: It is the sum total of hereditary material i.e. all the alleles in vitrogens present in a crops species and its wild relatives.
n) Genetic erosion: The gradual loss of variability from cultivated species, and their wild forms and wild relatives is called genetic erosion.
o) Intellectual Property: It is an idea, a design, an invention, a manuscript, etc., which can ultimately give rise to a useful product or application.
p) Breeder exemption: The “breeder’s exemption” in the UPOV Convention enables plant diversity to be available for further breeding activities because acts done for the purpose of breeding other varieties are not subject to any restriction by the breeder.
q) Farmer exemption: Farm saved seed exception or exemption (also known as farmers’ privilege) refers to the. optional exception permitted by the breeder’s right which “within reasonable limits and subject to the safeguarding of the intellectual property of breeder”.
r) Farmer right: Refers to right given to farmer to allow a share in profit in recognition of their contribution in development of germplasm of various crops.
s) Farmer Privilege: Refers to allowance given to farmer to use the material of a protected variety produced on their farm for planting of their new crop without any obligation to the PBR title holder.