- Can be done by two methods:
A) Plot Method (Quadrates):
- It includes 3 types:
c) Strips (Sometimes)
- For small area study i.e. communities of microorganism, insects, herbs, soil micro-fungi, etc = 1 x 1 m2
- For large area or animal i.e. shrubs, small trees, insects, amphibians and small reptiles. = 10 x 10 m2.
B) Plotless method:
- For studying mobile organisms such as butterflies, birds and animals.
- Use of transects, traps and mist nets.
- Variable distance transects if perpendicular distance measurement is possible.
- Fixed distance transects (20-50 m) if perpendicular distance measurement is not possible.
- For shy (nocturnal) organisms’ traps can be used.
- Pitfall traps for arthropods, reptiles and amphibians.
- Box trap for Rat.
- Mist net for birds.
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