- Aerial photography:
- Aerial photography can detect objects on land over a larger area.
- Colwell (1956) showed that panchromatic colour and especially infrared aerial photography could be used to detect rusts and viral diseases of small grains and certain diseases of citrus.
- The healthy foliage is highly reflective to the infrared wavelengths and appears red on this film whereas blighted or diseased foliage has low infrared reflectance and does not appear red in the photograph.
- Satellite Imaging :
- By monitoring epidemic favoring systems using a satellite, the disease occurrence on the field can be monitored.
- Ex: The spread and deposition of stem rust pathogen of wheat is influenced by definite synoptic weather conditions called Indian stem rust rules.
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