i. Soil solarization:
- Soil solarization or slow soil pasteurization is the hydro/thermal soil heating accomplished by covering moist soil with polyethylene sheets as soil mulch during summer months for 4-6 weeks for the management of plant pathogenic pests, diseases and weeds.
ii. Soil sterilization:
- At about 50 0 C, nematodes and water molds are killed.
- At about 60 and 72 0 C, most of the plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria are killed.
- At about 82 0 C, most weeds, plant pathogenic bacteria and insects are killed.
- Heat tolerant weed seeds and some plant viruses, such as TMV are killed at or near the boiling point (95-100 0 C).
iii. Hot water or Hot air treatment:
- Hot water treatment is used for controlling sett borne diseases of sugarcane [whip smut, grassy shoot and red rot of sugarcane (52 0 C for 30 min)] and loose smut of wheat (52 0 C for 10 min).
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