This is achieved by
- Proper selection of geographical area
- Proper selection of the field
- Adjusting time of sowing
- Disease escaping varieties
- Proper selection of seed and planting material
a) Proper selection of geographical area:
- Cultivation of bajra in wet areas is not profitable due to the diseases, smut (Tolyposporium penicillariae) and ergot (Claviceps microcephala).
b) Proper selection of the field:
- Raising of a particular crop year after year in the same field makes the soil sick, where disease incidence and severity may be more.
- Ex: Wilt of redgram, late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans), green ear of bajra (Sclerospora graminicola), etc.
c) Time of sowing:
- Ex: Rhizoctonia root rot of redgram is more severe in the crop sown immediately after the rains. Delayed sowing will help in reducing the incidence of disease.
- Ex: Infection of black stem rust of wheat (Puccinia graminis tritici) is more in late sowing, hence, early sowing helps in reduction of stem rust incidence.
d) Disease escaping varieties:
- Early maturing varieties of wheat or pea escape the damage due to Puccinia graminis tritici and Erysiphe polygoni, respectively.
e) Proper selection of seed and planting material:
- Selection of seed and seedling material from healthy sources will effectively manage the diseases such as loose smut of wheat (Ustilago nuda tritici), bunchy top of banana (Banana virus-1), Panama wilt of banana (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) and whip smut of sugarcane (Ustilago scitaminae).
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