A) Changes in cell permeability:
- Toxins kill plant cells by altering the permeability of plasma membrane, thus permitting loss of water and electrolytes and also unrestricted entry of substances including toxins.
- Cellular transport system, especially, H + / K + exchange at the cell membrane is affected.
B) Disruption of normal metabolic processes :
- Increase in respiration due to disturbed salt balance
- Malfunctioning of enzyme system Ex: Piricularin inhibits polyphenol oxidase
- Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation
C) Interfere with the growth regulatory system of host plant :
- Ex: Restricted development of roots induced by Fusarium moniliforme
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