- Ecology deals with the inter-relationship between biotic and abiotic components as well as the relationships among the individuals of the biotic components. (Cited from Shukla and Chandel, 1996)
- Ecology is a science of ecosystems or totality of reciprocal interactions between luring, organisms and their physical surroundings. (ME Clark, 1973)
- Ecology is the study of the reciprocal relationship between living organisms and their environments. Ernest Haeckel (1866)
- Ecology is the study of the structure and the function of nature (Odum).
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