- Surviving structure: sclerotia
- Primary inoculum: sclerotia in soil and plant debris, apothecia germinating from sclerotia
- Secondary inoculum: air borne conidia
- Transmission: air and water
- High rainfall and cool tempr.
- Crop rotation
- Deep ploughing
- Resistant varieties or tolerant varieties.
- Early planting to avoid cool tempr and rainfall.
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