- Systemic infection.
- Monocyclic disease
- Grow resistant varieties kalyanasona, PV 18, WG 307 and HD 450.
- Hot water treatment (Jensen, 1908): Soak the seed in cold water for 4 hours and then immerse the seed in hot water at a temperature of 520C for about 10 minutes. Dry the seed in shade before sowing.
- Solar seed treatment (Luthra and Sattar, 1934): Soak the seed in water for 4 hours (8 AM to 12 Noon) and expose the seed to the hot sun for 4 to 5 hours (from 12 Noon to 5 PM) on cement or rocky surface. This can be practiced in the areas where the summer temperatures are high (42-440C).
- Anaerobic seed treatment (USA): Soak the seeds for 2-4 hours in water between 15-200C and keep the moist seeds in air tight containers for 65-70 hours and there after dry the seed.
- Seed treatment with systemic chemicals like email@example.com% or Benlate@0.2%.
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