C/O: Anguina tritici
- Anguina tritici was the first plant parasitic nematode to be described in the literature in 1743.
- It causes a disease in wheat and rye called “ear-cockle” or seed gall.
- Appear on leaves, stems, and heads (floral organs).
- The affected plants look dwarfed with twisted and crinkled leaves.
- Infected heads are shorter, broader, remain green for longer period, and contain hard, light to dark brown or black cockles (also called galls) replacing grains in the ear partially or completely.
- The awns are twisted and the ear is also very much twisted.
- The cockles remain filled with nematode larvae. When they are soaked in water and then macerated, one can see larvae coming out from them.
- It is an ectoparasite that becomes endoparasitic invading inflorescence and developing seeds.
- Stunted plants with distorted seed heads and flag leaves
- Leaves wrinkled, twisted and rolled.
- Stems swollen at ground level.
- At heading, plants are stunted with small seed heads that have open glumes.
- Grain replaced by hard brown black seed galls containing thousands of dry nematodes.
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