a) Drying: bacteriostatic.
b) Canning: bactericidal with heat.
c) Freezing: destroys MO’s and inhibits growth.
d) Freezedrying: fruits and seafoods. Retains original shape, size.
e) Dehydrofreezing: fruits and vegetables. First dehydrated to 60% moisture of original weight.
f) Irradiation: x-rays, gamma rays kills MO’s.
g) Addition of chemicals: NaCl, acidification with acetic acid, fatty acid such as sod.
h) Diacetate, sulfurdioxide, sorbic acid, sod. Nitratre etc.
I) Antioxidants: i.e. vit. E, C and tannins.
j) Parboiling of rice: steaming/boiling of unhusked rice after soaking in water leads to easy removal of husk without nutrient loss.
k) Fortification: nutrients added to food. i.e. wheat deficient in lysine; maize deficient in lysine, tryptophan; salts with iodine.