- Toxic amino acids:
– Lathyrus poison:cause d/s of spinal cord (lathyrism) causing crippling and permanent paralysis, neurotoxin from seeds of lathyrus sativus, BOAA(beta-N-oxalyl-amino-l-alanine).
- Toxic alkaloids:
- Argimone contamination: in poppy seeds;sometimes mustard seeds, oils; alkaloids sanguinarine inhibits oxidation of pyruvic acid; pyruvic acid accumulates blood and cause dropsy.
- Alkaloids in potatoes: exposed to light then sprouting develops to green due to solanine and chacomine, poisoning of GI, diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
- Cyanogenic glycosides: cassava, tapoica or sorghum; linamarin and lotausralin in cassava; taxiphyllin in bamboo shoots; amygdalin in almonds.
- Trypsin inhibitor:
– Active against pancreatic proteolytic enzymes
– Found in red gram, Bengal gram, cow pea, soyabean, sweet potato
– Heat liable, from field beans and horse grams
– Haemolytic property more in green seeds and diminishes as the seed matures
– Agglutinin combine with cell lining of intestinal walls and interferes with absorption
– Nausea ,vommiting, diarrhoea.
- Flatulence factors:
– Large consumption of red gram, soyabean, lima beans, navy beans, black gram associated with production of gases and digestibility disorders. Soaking overnight reduces flatulence factors.
– aspergillus and penicillin are storage fungi; aflatoxin in cereals due to improper storage.
- Goitrogenic substances:
– Cabbage, mustard, rape due to glucosinolates (prevent thyroxin synthesis) and thiocyanates(reduce concentration of iodine).
- Cycads nuts:
– Cyasin affects CNS, remove by washing
- Mushroom poisoning:
– Amanita, wild mushroom, fata,
– Ingestion of pollen if fava beans cause haemolytic anaemia; due to def of enzyme G-6-P-D.