- Kellner feeding standard:
- Given by Kellner, a German Scientist in 1907.
- Takes into account not only the digestibility of the feeds as calculated from the amount lost in faeces and urine but also the entire loss from the body including energy expended in digestion and passing the food inside the body( Chewing).
- To measure the heat loss from body, Kellner devised a respiratory apparatus.
- Heat is determined indirectly by finding the amount of CO2 liberated or by oxygen gas used in oxidation.
- According to this system, a 1,000 lbs. animal needs 0.6 lb. of digestible protein and 6.35 lbs. of starch equivalent.
- Armsby feeding standard:
- Given by Armsby in 1917 and is based on true protein and net energy values.
- By means of the respiration calorimeter, Armsby determined the net energy required for mastication, digestion, assimilation and also the amount of heat and gases given off through the excretory channel.
- After considering losses of energy such as in urine, faeces, gases and in the work of digestion, he was able to estimate the amount of net energy available for productive process.
- A common criticism of Armsby standard is that the expense of determining requirements of the animals and the net energy in the various feeds is excessively high.
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