Course Content
Need assessment/problem identification
ZOPP approach in project planning
Abstract, summary and conclusions
Learn agriculture project planning with Braimy- B.Sc Agriculture
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1. One work by one author:

– Insert the author’s last name and the date of publication into the text.

– Eg :- Panta (2015) found that about 25% of Sundar bazar people are poor.


2. One work by two authors:

– When there are two authors always cite both last names.

– Eg : The quality of education of Nepal is deteriorating day by day ( Paudel and Basnet, 2015).


3. One work by three to five authors:

– When there are three to five authors, cite only the first author and add the expression “et al.” (which is Latin for “and others”)

– Eg : Likelihood of late blight attack….. (Shrestha et al., 2010).


4. Group as author:

– The full name of a group that serve as an author such as corporations, associations, and government agencies is written out unless the abbreviation is well known.

– Eg : Productivity of rice in Nepal is falling continuously (MOAD, 2015).


5. When there is no author:

– When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work’s title as your text reference, capitalizing each initial word.

– Eg : On climate change (“Climate and Weather,” 1997)


6. Two works by same authors in same year:

– If you are referring to two or more works by the same author, both published in the same year, the first has an alphabet ‘a’ after the date, second has ‘b’ and so on

– Eg : …………………………….(Neupane, 2009a, 2009b)


7. Two works by the same author in different year:

– If you are referencing to two or more works by the same author published in different years., the citations are distinguished by the years in chronological sequence.

– Eg : Seed quality of wheat… (Chaudhary, 2001, 2005).


8. Author with identical surname:

– When the authors of two works published in the same year have identical surnames, give their initial in citation

– Eg : Agricultural graduates…… ( Panta, H.K., 2005; Panta, K.K., 2005).


9. Personal communication:

– Eg : ……has not been found in Nepal (D.D. Dhakal, 15 May 2015, personal communication).

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