Course Content
Need assessment/problem identification
ZOPP approach in project planning
Abstract, summary and conclusions
Learn agriculture project planning with Braimy- B.Sc Agriculture
About Lesson
  1. Library research :

a) Analysis of historical record. :-

Techniques: Recording of notes, Content analysis, Tape and Film listening and analysis.

b) Analysis of documents :-

Techniques: Statistical compilations and manipulations, reference and abstract guides, contents analysis.

  1. Field research :

a) Non- participant direct observation: Observational behavioral scales, use of score cards, etc

b) Participant observation: Interactional recording, possible use of tape recorders, photo graphic techniques etc

c) Mass observation: Recording mass behavior, interview using independent observers in public places

d) Mail questionnaire: Identification of social and economic background of respondents

e) Personal interview: Interviewer uses a detailed schedule with open and closed questions

f) Telephone survey: Used as a survey technique for information and for discerning opinion; may also be used as a follow up of questionnaire.

  1. Laboratory research :

– Use of audio-visual recording devices ,  etc.

Steps  :

a) Formulating the research problems :- A research problem refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.

b) Extensive literature review :- The researcher must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself acquainted with the selected problem and work done in this field.

c) Development of working hypothesis :- Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.

d) Preparing research design :- The function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.

e) Determining the sample design :- Sample design is a definite plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population.

f) Collecting data :-

A researcher can collects the data through different sources:

  1. Primary source: first hand information -Survey
  2. Secondary source: Second hand information – Published or unpublished material

g) Execution of project :- The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time during project execution.

h) Analysis of data :- new hypotheses should be subjected to tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any conclusion

I) Hypothesis testing :- Hypothesis-testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it.

j) Generalization and interpretation:-

If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several times, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive at generalization, i.e., to build a theory

If the researcher had no hypothesis to start with, he might seek to explain his findings on the basis of some theory. It is known as interpretation

k) Preparation of report or thesis:- Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done.

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