- Milk is one of the best available complete food for human beings having a pH value of about 7 is one of the best available food, has high nutritive value.
- The average chemical composition of cow milk based on the analysis of a large no. of milk sample is as follows:
Lactose (Milk sugar): 5.0%
Casein (Milk protein): 2.5%
Albumin & other proteins: 0.5%
Vit. A, D, E, & Sterols: 0.05%
- There are various sources through which milk is contaminated. Milk is free of any microbes in udder of healthy cow but after milked the milk gets contaminated through various ways:
- Air borne micro-organisms settling into the milk
- Flank of cow, hands etc.
- Good quality milk contains low count of micro-organisms whereas poor quality contains large population of micro-organism.
- So, in order to get good quality milk, hygienic conditions are essential.
- The microorganisms present in the milk may be categorized into 3 groups:-
- The normal micro flora of most of the milk samples.
- Some spoilage microorganisms which gain entry into the milk through various sources.
- Some pathogenic microorganisms (to both man and animal) that may be present in unhealthy cow.