Course Content
Behavioral relationship of bio-mass
Population and its relationship with resource depletion
Interrelationship between different components of Nepalese farming system
Nutrients cycle
Natural and agricultural resource conservation strategies
Use of limited farm resources for economic management
Learn agricultural and environmental economics – B.Sc agriculture
About Lesson

The realization toward environmental conservation began actually in Stockhom Conference of 1992. In Nepal there was no provision earlier regarding the conservation of environment in the constitutions. But, the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2063, specially mentioned the necessity of protecting the environment.

The new Constitution places duty upon the state to incorporate environmental matters into its policy process. Development of Environmental Policies in National Periodic Plans Nepal started its planned process of development in 1956, when the First Five Year Plan was lunched. The First Plan (1956-1961 or 2013-2018) emphasized agricultural production and infrastructure development in order to meet the needs of a burgeoning population.

  • The Second Plan (1962-65 or 2019-2022) took greater account of social factors called for land reform, coupled with better forest management and afforestation.
  • The Third Plan (1965-70 or 2022-2027) again emphasized the economic role of the agricultural sector, calling for increased food production, but also land reform, and significantly provision of sanitation and sewage facilities for both rural and urban settlements.
  • The Fourth Plan (1970-75 or 2027-2032) was novel in regional planning concepts it introduced for rural and urban areas. Sectoral policies of the plan, related to environment in this plan were delineation for major agricultural areas, reclamation of forest land for more agricultural production by means of resettlement programs, soil and land use surveys in different selected districts, soil conservation in Kathmandu Valley watershed, etc. From 1975, national planning policies realized the importance of environmental factors in achieving the development objectives.
  • The Fifth Plan (1975-80 or 2032-2037) introduced the concept of ecological balance and economic development by giving the primary emphasis to conservation and development of watershed in the hills. Land use and water resource development policies were first introduced in the hills.
  • Land use and water resource development policies were first introduced in this plan. Similarly, the National Forest policy was also introduced.
  • The Sixth Plan (1980-85 or 2037-2042) gave emphasis to the theme conservation during the implementation of its development programs. This policy further emphasized the need for population control, soil conservation and watershed management, survey of endangered flora and fauna, environmental impact assessment (EIA) of development projects and review of rules and regulations concerning the environment of urban areas, etc.
  • The Seventh Plan (1985-90 or 2042-2047) elaborated the environmental friendly policies and for the first time a national level policy on environment management was incorporated in this plan. It was equally focused in public participation in decision making process, role of women and non-governmental organizations in environment management. The NCS as well as the Master Plan for Forestry (MPFS, 1988) were also endorsed and their implementation initiated during this plan.
  • The Eighth Plan (1992-97 or 2049-2054) reinforced environmental policies with specific reference to sustainable economic growth and poverty alleviation. The plan also emphasized the need for internalizing the EIA system, improvement of legislative measures and promotion of environmental awareness at different levels.
  • Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP) was prepared in 1993 to facilitate integration of environmental aspects in development process, this aspect were also incorporated into the hydropower, irrigation and industrial development policies.

The following are development in Eighth Plan:

a) 1992- Environmental Protection Council (EPC)

b) 1993- Nepal Environment Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP)

c) 1995- New Ministry of Population and Environment (MOPE) was established

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