A wide range of environmental problems at regional and international levels have become apparent over the past several decades, such as global warming and ozone layer depletion which result from the cumulative effects of emissions from many countries. The global tend of deteriorating environmental quality threatens capacity of ecosystems, with serious repercussions on the socioeconomic well being of the local and global communities.
The fundamental link between environmental protection and economic development was first recognized in the 1972, declaration of United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockhom Declaration). This conference realized the need of institution in the United Nations Organizations (UNO) to see the environment. As a result United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established in the UNO.
The international community in the Stockhom Conference prepared various documents for managing the serious problems of the world. The world Conservation Strategies (WCS) was prepared in 1980 endorsed by many countries. The three main objectives of this Strategy are:
a. To maintain essential ecological process and life support systems.
b. To preserve genetic diversity, and
c. To ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems
The second WCS (Caring for the earth) was prepared jointly by the World Conservation Union, UNEP and the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) in 1991 offers a wide range of recommendation for the legal and institutional reform to achieve a sustainable society.
Caring for the earth lists nine fundamental principles for sustainability. They are:
1. Respect and acre for the community life
2. Improve the quality of the life
3. Conserve the earth’s vitality and diversity
4. Minimize the depletion on non-renewable resources
5. Keep within the earth’s carrying capacity
6. Change the personal attitudes and practices
7. Enable communities to care for their own environment
8. Provide a national framework for integrating development and conservation
9. Create global alliance
Within Nepal, a National Conservation Strategy (NCS) has been developed by the National Planning Commission of Government of Nepal (G/N) in collaboration with the World Conservation Union (UCN).
The NCS has four key objectives
1. Satisfy the basic material, spiritual and cultural needs of the people of
Nepal for both present and future generations.
2. Ensure the sustainable use of Nepal’s land and renewable resources.
3. Preserve the biological diversity of Nepal in order to maintain and improve the wild species, both plants and animal.
4. Maintain essential ecological and life support systems such as soil regeneration, nutrient recycling and protection and cleansing of water and air.